different forms of intellectual property have multiple uses as shown in the “Multiple Business Uses of Forms of IP” figure

DEFENSIVE Patents Trademarks Know-how Relationships
Conflict Avoidance/ Resolution Protection (exclude others)
Design freedom
Litigation bargaining power Protection (exclude others) Protection (trade secret) N/A
OFFENSIVE Patents Trademarks Know-how Relationships
Revenue Generation Product and services: sales, licensing, joint venture, strategic alliance, optimization of core technology, value extraction from non-core technology, integration, donations.
Patents: Sales, licensing, donations, infringement policing
Increased bargaining power (e.g. suppliers, consumers, affiliates, joint venture, alliance partners)
Market penetration
Increased speed to market Product and Sales: sales, joint venture, strategic alliance
TM: sales, licenses, co-branding, infringement policing Sales
Joint ventures
Strategic alliance
Increased speed to market Product and services: sales
Cost Reduction Litigation avoidance
Access to technology of others
Improved knowledge transfer
Reduced knowledge gaps Litigation avoidance
Access to technology of others Litigation avoidance
Improved knowledge marketing costs Reduced marketing cost
Strategic Position Reputation/Image
Competitive blocking (exclusivity)
Barrier to competition
Supplier control
Consumer control
Optimization of core technology Name recognition
Consumer loyalty
Barrier to competition
Strategic alliance Reputation/Image
Barrier to entry Reputation/Image
Consumer loyalty
Barrier to entry